Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2020, Page: 1-10
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites from Abattoir Effluents in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria
Victoria Daminabo, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
James Damen, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Received: Nov. 28, 2019;       Accepted: Dec. 25, 2019;       Published: Jan. 7, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijpp.20200401.11      View  569      Downloads  86
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites from abattoir effluents. A total of 200 samples were examined out of which 50 samples each from Goat, Sheep, Pig and Cow respectively. These samples were processed using standard parasitological techniques including macroscopy, microscopy; formol ether concentration and modified Ziehl Neelsen method. Out of the 200 samples examined 109 where positive for intestinal parasites. This result revealed an overall prevalence of 54.5% in all. A total of 30 (60%) was recorded for goat, 23 (46.0%) cow, 29 (58.0%) sheep and 27 (54.0%) pigs. The prevalence of different parasites encountered included Ascaris suum (5.6%), Trichuris trichiura (3.2%), Hookworm (24.2%), Strongyloides stercolaris (0.8%), Teania spp. (2.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (7.1%) Trichostrongylus (8.3%), Diphyllobothrium latum (0.4%), Schistosoma intercalatum (0.1%), Fasciolopsis buski (8.3%), Fasciola hepatica (3.2%) and Metagonimus yokogawai (0.4%). Others were Paragonimus westermani (0.4%), Entamoeba coli (9.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (6.7%), Giardia lamblia (4.4%), Trichomonas hartmani (0.8%), Balantidium coli (11.1%) and Oocyst of Crypstoporidium (2.0%). The highest prevalence was hookworm (42.6%) in goat and Balantidium coli (60.7%) in pigs. Fasciolopsis buski and Metagonimus yokogawai had the lowest prevalence (0.4%). There was a significant prevalence of intestinal parasites in effluents of Jos Abbatoir.
Intestinal Parasites, Abattoir Effluents, Prevalence, Jos, Hookworm, Goat, Sheep, Pig, Nigeria
To cite this article
Victoria Daminabo, James Damen, Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites from Abattoir Effluents in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria, International Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ijpp.20200401.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Herwaldt, Bl. (2000). Cyclospora Cayetonensis: A review, focusing on the outbreaks of cycloporiasis in 1990s. Clin Infect Dis 31: 1040-1057.
Orlandi, P. A., Chu, D. M. T., Bier, J. W. and Jackson, G. J. (2002). Parasites and the food supply. Food Technol 56: 72–81.
Cox, F. E. G. (2002). History of human parasitology. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 595–612.
Doyle, E. (2003). Foodborne Parasites: A Review of the Scientific Literature. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin.
Cheesbrough, M. (1999): District laboratory practice in tropical countries part I, Cambridge University Press New York.
Cheesebrough, M. (2004): District Laboratory practice in tropical countries Part 1. (Cambridge University press Pp 2900).
Norhayati, M., Fatmah, M. S., Yusof, S. and Edariah A. B. (2003) Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Man: A Review. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 58 (2). Pp. 296-305.
Wolfe MS. (1992). Giardiasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 5: 93-100.
Wallis P. M., Erlandsen S. L., Issac-Renton J. L., Olson M. E., Robertson W. J., H. Van Keulen. (1996). Prevalence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts and characterization of Giardia spp isolated from the drinking water in Canada. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 2789-2797.
Xiao L. (1994). Giardia infection in farm animals. Parasitology Today. 10: 436-438.
Marshall M. M., Naumovitz D., Ortega Y., Sterling C. R. Waterborne protozoan pathogens. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 10: 67-85, 1997.
Magambo J. K; Zeyhl. E and Wachira T. M; 1998 Prevalence of Intestinal parasite among children in southern Sudan. East Africa Med. J. 75 (5): 288-90.
World Health Organization (WHO) (1991). Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology. Parasitology - laboratory manuals ISBN 92 4 154410 4 (NLM Classification: WC 25).
World Health Organization (WHO) Report (1995). Intestinal parasitic infection 73 92) 183-90.
World Health Organization (WHO) (1996). Tropical disease research: Progress 1995-96 13th Progress, report. 183-901.
Chandher, A. C. Read, C. P. (1961) Introduction to Parasitology 10th Ed John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York London. P 29.
Stanley, S. J. (2001). Pathophysiology of amoebiasis. Trends Parasitol 17: 280-5.
Tomkins, A, Watson, F. (1989). Malnutrition and infections, Acclscn, Nutrition Policy discussion paper 5, United Nations. New York.
Wagner B; Polly L. (1997). Ascaris suum prevalence and Intensity: an abattoir survey of market hugs in saskatchewen. Veterinary parasitology 73: 309-313.
Morales, G; Pino, L; Perdomo, L. (1986) comparison between the nematodes communities in sheep and goats in the arid zones of venezuela. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo cruz; 81: 185-190.
Crewe W. (1977). A guide of human Parasitology 10th Edition H. K. Lewis and Co. Limited 167-179.
Abdul Ghaffar, (2009), Microbiology and Immunology, 6th edition, University of South Carolina, School of Medicine.
Ali-Ahmad N, Bathija M, Abuhammour W. (2000). Anemia from hookworm infestation. Pediatr Rev 21: 354-7.
Pathak A. K; Pal S. (2008) Seasonal prevalence of Gastrotinal parasites in Goats from Durg District of Chattisgurh Veterinary world 1 (5); 136-137.
Blood D. C; Radostits O. M; Henderson J. A; Arundel J. H; Gay C. C; (1990) Veterinary Medicine. Seventh edition. The English Language Book Society and Bailliere Tindall.
Burton, C. H. Turner, C (2003): Health risks from Pathogens in livestock manure. In manure management. Treatment strategies for sustainable agriculture Ed. Silsoe Research Institute, Uk. Pp 451.
Sadar S. A; Ehsan M. A; Anower A. K. M. M. Rahman M. M. Islam M. A. (2006) Incidence of Liver flukes and Gastrointestinal parasites in Cattle Bangladesh Journal of veterinary Medicine 4 (1): 39-42.
Gajadhar A. A Aramini J. J; Tiffin G; Bisaillon J. R. (1998) Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian age pigs. Journal of parasitology 84: 759-763.
Gamble H. R; Brady R. C; Dubey J. P. (1999) Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in the New England States. Veterinary parasitology 82; 759-763.
Davies P. R; Morrow W. E, Deen J; Gamble H. R; Patton S. (1998) Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in finishing swine raised in different productions systems in North Carolina, USA. Preventive veterinary medicine. 36: 67-76.
Gaassenbeek C. P. and Borgsteede. F. H. (1998) studies on the survival of Ascaris suum eggs under laboratory and stimulated field conditions. Veterinary Parasitology 75: 227-234.
Guselle N; Olson M. E. (1999) Human pathogens in Alberta flog operations. Alberta pork producers.
Guselle N; Olson M. E. (2000). Are pig parasites a human health risk? Advances in pork production 11: 153-162.
Harold, W. B. Franklin, A. V. (1983): “intestinal nematodes of human beings” Basic clinical parasitology 5th ed. Pp. 105, 142.
Anderson R. C. (1988): Nematode Transmission Pattern Journal of Parasitology 74: 30-45.
Arora (2007): Medical Parasitology 2nd Edition CBS Publishers and Distributors India Pp 1200.
Arora D. R; Arora B (2005) Medical Parasitology CBS Publishers New Delhi India.
Atwill E. R; Sweitzer R. A; Pereira M. G, Gardner J. A; Van V. D; Boyce W. M. (1997) Prevalence and risk factors for shedding Cryptosporidium parvum occyst and Giardia cysts within feral pigs. Applied and environmental microbiology 63: 3946-3949.
Crompton D. W. T., 1992: Ascariasis and Childhood malnutrition. Trans R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hygiene 86; 577-579.
Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, (2006). Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet. 367 (9521): 1521-32.
Caballero-flemandez A. I, Castrejon-Pineda F. Martine-Ganaba R. Angeles-Campos, S. Perez-Rojas M; Buntinx S. E, (2004) Survival and viability of Ascaris suum and oesophagostonun dendatum in ensided swine faeces Biores. Tech no. 94: 137-142.
CDC, (2007): Center for diseases control and prevention. Parasitic Disease. 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlantic, 6A 30333. U.S.A. E mail idcinfo@cdc.gov.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Publication of CDC surveillance summaries. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 41 (8): 145-6.
Corry J. K., Gary L. M. and Brett V. S. (2004). Common Intestinal Parasites. American Academy of Family Physicians Vol. 69/No. 5.
Dickson R, Awasthi S, Demellweek C, Williamson P (2003). Anthelmintic drugs for treating worms in children: effects on growth and cognitive performance. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; (2): CD000371.
Gadahi; J. A, Arshed M. J. AliQ, Javid S. B. shah S. J. (2009) Prevalence of Gastrointestinal parasites of sheep and Goat in and around Rawalpind and Islamabad, Pakistan. Veterinary world 2 (2): 51: 53.
Heyman, D. (1995): Medical parasitology Appleton and Lange 4th Ed U.S.A Pp 3002.
Karanis P, Kourenti C, Smith H. (2007) Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt. J Water Health.; 5: 1-38.
Katoch, R, Chauhan, P. P. S and John D. K. (2000): Indian Vet. J. 77: 259-260.
MacPherson DW (1999). Intestinal parasites in returned travelers. Med Clin North Am; 83: 1053-75.
Olson M. E; Thorlakson C. L. Deselliers L; Morck D. W; Mc Allister T. A (1997) Giadia and Cryptosporidium in Canadian farm animals. Veterinary parasitology 68: 375-381.
Parija SC, Sheeladevi C, Shivaprakash MR, Biswal N. (2001) Evaluation of lactophenol cotton blue stain for detection of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis in perianal surface samples. Trop Doct 2001; 31 (4): 214-5.
Petri WA Jr, Singh U. (1999) Diagnosis and management of amebiasis. Clin Infect Dis 29: 1117-25.
Prevalence of Gastrointestinal parasites in Cattle of Western Vidarbha region. Veterinary World, Vol. 1 (2): 45.
Procop GW. (2001) Gastrointestinal infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am; 15: 1073-108.
Raunelli, F; Gonzalez S (2009) strategic control and prevalence of F. Hepatica in cayarmerca. Peru. A Pilot study. International journal of Applied vertinary medicine. 7 No (4).
Reed, S. L. (2001). Amaebiasis and infection with free-living ameobas. In: Harrison TR, Fauci AS, Braunwald E., eds. Harrison's Principles of internal medicine. 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1199-202.
Smyth J. D. (1984): Introduction to animal Parasitology, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Great Britain 22, 48, 181, 205.
Saviroli, L. Bundy, D. Tomkinds, A. (1992) Intestinal parasitic infections: include health problem Trans R. Soc. Tropical Medical Hygiene 86: 353-354.
Smyth, J. D. (1990): Animal Parasitology 3rd ed. Cambridge, University Press, Great Britain 25: 269-385.
Saxena AK, Springer A, Tsokas J, Willital GH. (2001) Laparoscopic appendectomy in children with Enterobius vermicularis. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 11: 284-6.
Browse journals by subject